What is cardiology?
Cardiology is that branch of medicine that deals with studying, detecting and treating cardiovascular diseases that every year, either because they are congenital or non-congenital, cause the death of a high percentage of human beings.
What does cardiology cure?
Among the most usual cardio-logical diseases we find –
- Stable effort angina
- Unstable angina
- Myocardial infarction
- Coronary heart disease
- The congenital irregularity of the heart
The highest risk factors for these heart conditions, unless they are natural predispositions, are the wrong lifestyle and habits that are too sedentary. In most cases, those most at risk are those who take in their diet excess fat and salt, which then lead to consequences such as high blood pressure and high cholesterol levels and much more. The risk is also high for those who smoke and suffer from diabetes. In modern cardiology, it has been stated that if a healthy life is practiced with physical activity and a healthy diet, the risk decreases.
The evolution of cardiology
Cardiology has made great strides over the years thanks to the introduction of essential equipment for the diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases. In the 20th century they were put to work:
- The electrocardiogram, which records the activity of the heart, utilizing electrodes, during its function
- Cardiac cauterization, which allows visualization of blood vessels and ventricles
- The bypass, a sophisticated surgical technique
- The pacemaker, an electrical device that regulates arrhythmia
- The defibrillator, a life-saving electrical device that detects changes in heart rhythm.
What do cardiology experts do?
The cardiologist who has been involved in this branch of medicine has always been the cardiologist who, in addition to taking care of the cardiovascular situation, performs interventions and assists in the rehabilitation of the patient.
The cardiologist, however, having arrived at a certain point in the study must choose a specialization
- Pediatric cardiology – deals with the various cardiopathies that affect children;
- Cardiology for adults – intervenes on the diagnosis, therapies, and prevention of heart disease that occur to adults;
- International cardiology – performed only by cardiologists with more thorough preparation, in fact, they perform various types of interventions including balloon angioplasty, coronary angiography, and correction of congenital malformations;
- Advanced cardiology – cardiologists expert in this discipline deal with the definition of diagnostics through the help of images that refer to the heart and its blood vessels.
Warning Signs: when to worry
The signals that surely cannot be ignored are the following –
- Chest pain, even transient and mild but often recurring
- Interscapular pain
- Palpitations, tachycardia
- Shortness of breath (dyspnea) especially if the physical effort is not enough to justify it
- Dizziness, fainting
- Sense of fatigue
Even in the absence of any symptoms that can be traced back to cardiac disorders, it is advisable to go to a cardiological examination in the presence of the following risk factors –
- High pressure
- Heart disease and frequent cardiac events in the family
What happens during the visit to a cardiologist?
The cardiological examination is based on a chat in which the patient tells the doctor about himself, about his clinical history and that of his family circle, about his symptoms and his lifestyle.
Routine tests that the cardiologist usually prescribes for everyone to detect any risk factors are blood tests to control the levels of fat in the blood (cholesterol and triglycerides) and blood glucose levels.
If the specialist considers it necessary to subject the patient to more detailed investigations, he can prescribe the following cardiological examinations –
- ECG (electrocardiogram)
- Dynamic ECG with Holter for monitoring of the electrical activity of the heart within 24 hours
- Doppler, a non-invasive test that allows visualization of blood flow within the heart
- Doppler of the supra-aortic trunks for the control of the arteries that lead to the brain
- Cardiovascular exercise test with a treadmill
Finest cardiologists in India
Heart diseases can never be taken lightly. Over 90% of deaths due to cardiac arrest are preventable if treated early. There are excellent medications including calcium channel blockers, vasodilators, and various anti-angina drugs that allow control of cardiac problems. Some of the finest best cardiologist in India are –
Dr. Ashok Seth
Fortis Escorts Heart Institute, New Delhi
Dr. Praveen Chandra
Medanta, Medicity Gurgaon
Dr. Naresh Trehan
Medanta, Medicity Gurgaon
Dr. Devi Prasad Shetty
Narayana Institute of Cardiac Science, Bangalore